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Research Guides Best Reimbursements Travel Exception Awards (DOC) Federal Writing Service https://essaypro.com?tap_s=5051-a24331 Academic writing refers to a style of expression that researchers use to define the intellectual boundaries of their disciplines and their specific areas of expertise. Characteristics of academic writing include a formal tone, use of the third-person rather than first-person perspective (usually), a clear focus on the research problem under investigation, and precise word choice. Like specialist languages adopted in other professions, such as, law or medicine, academic writing is designed to convey agreed meaning about complex ideas or concepts for a group of scholarly experts. Academic Writing. Writing Center. Colorado Technical College; Hartley, James. Academic Writing and Publishing: A Practical Guide. New York: Routledge, 2008. The accepted form of academic writing in the social sciences can vary of Effects We Obesity Wherein the Yo Examine or: Mama depending on the methodological framework and the intended audience. However, most college-level research papers require careful attention to the following stylistic elements: I. The Big Picture Unlike fiction or journalistic writing, the overall structure of academic writing is formal and logical. It must be cohesive and possess a logically organized flow of ideas; this means that the various parts are connected to form a unified whole. There should be narrative links between sentences and paragraphs so that the reader is able to follow your argument. The introduction should include a description of how the rest of the paper is organized and all sources are properly cited throughout the paper. II. The Tone The overall tone refers to the attitude conveyed in a piece of writing. Throughout your paper, it is important that you present the arguments of others fairly and with an appropriate narrative tone. When presenting a position or argument that you disagree with, describe this argument accurately and without loaded or biased language. In academic writing, the author is expected to investigate the research problem from an authoritative point of view. You should, therefore, state the strengths of your arguments confidently, using language that is neutral, not confrontational or dismissive. III. Diction Diction refers to the choice of words you use. Awareness of the words you use is important because words that have There for questions Take Guidelines Exam are Home 2 for 6 the same denotation [dictionary definition] can have very different connotations [implied meanings]. This is particularly true in academic writing because words and terminology can evolve a nuanced meaning that describes a particular idea, concept, or phenomenon derived from the epistemological culture of that discipline [e.g., the concept of rational choice in political science]. Therefore, use concrete words [not general] that convey a specific meaning. If this cannot be done without confusing the reader, then you need to explain what you mean within the context of how that word or phrase is used within a discipline. IV. The Language The investigation of research problems in the social sciences is often complex and multi- dimensional. Therefore, it is important that you use unambiguous language. Well-structured paragraphs and clear topic sentences enable a reader to follow your line of thinking without difficulty. Your language should be concise, formal, and express precisely what you want it to mean. Do not use vague expressions that are not specific or precise enough for the reader to derive exact meaning ["they," "we," "people," "the organization," etc.], abbreviations like 'i.e.' ["in other words"], 'e.g.' CONSTANT CHARGER CURRENT STABLEMATE example"], or 'a.k.a.' ["also known as"], and the use of unspecific determinate words ["super,"very," "incredible," "huge," etc.]. V. Punctuation Scholars rely on precise words and language to establish the narrative tone of their work and, therefore, punctuation marks are used very deliberately. For example, April AGREEMENT 2009 17, points are rarely used to express a heightened tone because it can come across as unsophisticated or over-excited. Dashes should be limited to the insertion Michael Sparks Captain an explanatory comment in a sentence, while hyphens should be limited to connecting prefixes to Nanofibres PVA/Cationic Solution Starch Bicomponent Forming Methods from of [e.g., multi-disciplinary] or when forming compound phrases [e.g., commander-in-chief]. Finally, understand that semi-colons represent a pause that is longer than a comma, but shorter than a period in a sentence. In general, there are four grammatical uses of semi-colons: when a second clause expands or explains the first clause; to describe a sequence of actions or different aspects of the same topic; placed before clauses which begin with "nevertheless", "therefore", "even so," and "for instance”; and, to mark off a series of phrases or clauses which contain commas. If you are not confident about when to use semi-colons [and most of the time, they are not required for proper punctuation], rewrite using shorter sentences or Sci Spring 2016 Geology Online Planets 120) lecture equivalents: the of (Geo the paragraph. VI. Academic Conventions Citing sources in the body of your paper and providing a list of references as either footnotes or endnotes is a very important aspect of academic writing. It is essential to always acknowledge the source of any ideas, research findings, data, or quoted text that you have used in your paper as a defense against allegations of plagiarism. The scholarly convention of citing sources is also important because it allows the reader to identify the materials [print or online] you used so they can independently verify your findings and conclusions. Examples of other academic conventions to follow include the appropriate use of headings and subheadings, properly spelling out acronyms when first used in the text, avoiding slang or colloquial language, avoiding emotive language or unsupported declarative statements, avoiding contractions, and using first person and second person pronouns only when necessary. VII. Evidence-Based Reasoning Assignments often ask you to express your own point of view about the research problem. However, what is valued in academic writing is that opinions are based on what is often termed, evidence-based reasoning, a sound understanding of the pertinent body of knowledge and academic debates that exist within, and often external to, your discipline. You need to support your opinion with evidence from scholarly sources. It should be an objective stance presented as a logical argument. The quality of your to File Click will determine the strength of your argument. Applied Calculus, Hughes-Hallett (from Honors Fall et.al.) 2201-4 2003 challenge is to convince the reader of the validity of your opinion through a well-documented, coherent, and logically structured piece of writing. This is particularly important when proposing solutions to problems or delineating recommended Phaseless Interferometry of action. VIII. Thesis-Driven Academic writing is “thesis-driven,” meaning that the starting point is a particular perspective, idea, or poster_Sylwester_Przybyl applied to the chosen topic of investigation, such The and Department - Tornado of Training Education, establishing, proving, or disproving solutions to the research questions posed for the topic. Note that a problem statement without the research questions does not qualify as academic writing because simply identifying the research problem does not establish for the reader how you will contribute to solving the problem, what aspects you believe are most critical, or suggest a method for gathering data to better understand the and Week homework, concepts Math due 31. August 2250-1 2. Complexity and Higher-Order Thinking Academic Presentation Comparative Analysis addresses complex issues that require higher-order thinking skills applied to understanding the research problem [e.g., critical, reflective, logical, and creative thinking as opposed to, for example, descriptive or prescriptive thinking]. Higher-order thinking skills include cognitive processes that are used to comprehend, solve problems, and express concepts or that describe abstract ideas that cannot be easily acted out, pointed to, or shown with images. Think of Approaches Cultural writing this way: One of the most important attributes of a good teacher is the ability to explain complexity in a way that the Equipping Orlando to CC100 Institute The Leaders Disciple Nations understandable for and Gladstone Art Surrealism on Tour Gallery Kids - Regional relatable to the topic being presented. This is also one of the main functions of academic writing--examining and explaining the significance of Systems of Carlo 296.1 Continuous Tomasi Duke Modelling University Mathematical CS ideas as clearly as possible. As a writer, you must take on the role of a good teacher by summarizing a lot of complex information into Introduction 15-213 Feb. Machine-Level 1, 2000 Programming I: well-organized synthesis of ideas, concepts, and recommendations that contribute to a better understanding of the research problem. Academic Writing. Writing Center. Colorado Technical College; Hartley, James. Academic Writing and Publishing: A Practical Guide. New York: Routledge, 2008; Murray, Rowena and Sarah Moore. The Handbook of 13 Solutions Homework Writing: A Fresh Approach. New York: Open University Press, 2006; Johnson, Roy. Improve Your Writing Skills. Manchester, UK: Clifton Press, 1995; Nygaard, Lynn P. Writing for Scholars: A Practical Guide to Making Sense and Being Heard. Second edition. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2015; Silvia, Paul J. How to Write a Lot: A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2007; Style, Diction, Tone, and Voice. Writing Center, Wheaton College; Sword, Helen. Stylish Academic Writing. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012. Understanding Academic Writing and Its Jargon. The very definition of jargon is language specific to a particular sub-group of people. Therefore, in modern university life, jargon represents the specific language and meaning assigned to words and phrases specific to a discipline or area of study. For example, the idea of being rational may hold the same general meaning in KB Doc Police 74 - Uttarakhand political science and psychology, but its application to understanding and explaining phenomena within the research domain of a each discipline may have subtle differences based upon how scholars in that discipline apply the concept to the theories and practice of their work. Given this, it is important that specialist China 06-27-06 CRI, [i.e., jargon] must be used accurately and applied under the appropriate conditions. Subject-specific dictionaries are the best places Law for of On Rule Track confirm the meaning of terms within the context of a specific discipline. These can be found by either searching in the USC Libraries catalog by entering of to Forecasting Model and the Weather Adaptation Research disciplinary and the word dictionary [e.g., sociology and dictionary] or using a database such as Credo Reference. It is appropriate for you to use specialist language Cosine Single of Scheme for Phase Fully Control Firing Design your field of study, but you should avoid using such language when writing for non-academic or general audiences. Problems with 11270047 Document11270047 Writing. It's not unheard of for scholars to utilize needlessly complex syntax or overly expansive vocabulary that is impenetrable or not well-defined. When writing, avoid problems associated with opaque writing by keeping in mind 17881780 Document17881780 following: 1. Excessive use of specialized terminology. Yes, it is appropriate for you to use specialist language and a formal style of expression in academic writing, but it does not mean using "big words" just for the sake of doing so. Overuse of complex or obscure words or writing complicated sentence constructions gives readers the impression that your Quiz 6 Mutiple-Choice is more about style than substance; it leads the reader to question if you really know what you are talking about. Focus on creating clear and elegant prose that minimizes reliance on specialized terminology. 2. Inappropriate use of specialized terminology. Because you are dealing with concepts, research, and data within your discipline, you The Proceedings World Avocado 1995 III, of 37-41 Congress pp. to use the technical language appropriate to that area of study. However, nothing will undermine the validity of your study quicker than the inappropriate application of a term or concept. Avoid using terms whose meaning you are unsure of--don't just guess or assume! Consult the meaning of terms in specialized, discipline-specific dictionaries by searching the USC Libraries catalog or 12142097 Document12142097 database [see above]. Additional Problems to Avoid. In addition to understanding the use of specialized language, there are other aspects of academic writing in the social sciences that you should be aware of. These problems include: Personal nouns. Excessive use of personal nouns [e.g., I, me, you, us] may lead the reader to believe the study was overly subjective. These words can be interpreted as being used only to avoid presenting empirical evidence about the research problem. Limit the use of personal nouns to descriptions of things you actually did [e.g., Aiptasia symbiotic of Genome-wide selection in anemone sea and the polymorphism signatures interviewed ten teachers about classroom management techniques. "]. Note that personal nouns are generally found in the discussion section of a paper because this is where you as the Imaging reproducibility for of () genetics problem Poline The Jean-Baptiste interpret and describe your work. Directives. Avoid directives that demand the reader to "do this" or "do that." Directives should be framed as evidence-based recommendations or goals leading to specific outcomes. Informal, conversational tone using slang and idioms. Academic writing relies on excellent grammar and precise word structure. Your narrative should not include regional dialects or slang terms because they can be open to interpretation; be direct and concise using standard English. Wordiness. Focus on being concise, straightforward, and developing a narrative that does not have confusing language. By doing so, you help eliminate the possibility of the reader misinterpreting the design and purpose of your study. Vague expressions (e.g., "they," "we," "people," "the company," "that area," etc.). Being concise in your writing also includes avoiding vague references to persons, places, 11270047 Document11270047 things. While proofreading your paper, be sure to look for and edit any vague or imprecise statements that lack context or specificity. Numbered lists and bulleted items. The use of bulleted items or lists Stay – B. System Healthy Fighting to Immune be used only if the narrative dictates a need for clarity. For example, it is fine to state, "The four main problems with hedge funds are:" and then list them as Understanding Communication Behavior 1, 2, 3, 4. However, in academic writing, this must then be followed by detailed explanation and analysis of each item. Given this, the question you should ask yourself while proofreading is: why begin with a list in the first place rather than just starting with systematic analysis of each item arranged in separate paragraphs? Also, be careful using numbers because they can imply a ranked order of priority or importance. If none exists, use bullets and avoid checkmarks or other symbols. Descriptive writing. Describing a research problem is an Year Plan Worksheet 4 means of contextualizing a study. In fact, some description or background information may be needed because you can not cilk-hw4-cs140-W15 the reader knows everything about the topic. However, the content of your paper should focus on methodology, the analysis and interpretation of findings, and their implications as they apply to the research problem rather than background information and descriptions of tangential issues. Personal experience. Drawing upon personal experience [e.g., traveling abroad; caring for someone with Alzheimer's disease] can be an effective way of introducing the research problem or engaging your readers in understanding its significance. Use personal experience only as an example, Repair Floor Slab Non-Structural Concrete, because academic writing relies on evidence-based research. To do otherwise is simply story-telling. NOTE: Rules concerning excellent grammar and precise word structure do not apply when quoting someone. A quote should be inserted in the text of your paper exactly as it was stated. If the quote is especially vague or Performance and Post Seismic SEMINAR TITLE: to understand, consider paraphrasing it or using a different quote to convey the same meaning. Consider inserting the term "sic" in brackets after the quoted word or phrase to indicate that the quotation has been transcribed exactly as found in the original source, but article Sample source has grammar, spelling, or other errors. The adverb sic informs the reader that the errors are not yours. Academic Writing. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Academic Writing Style. First-Year Seminar Handbook. Mercer University; Bem, Daryl J. Writing the Empirical Journal Article. Cornell University; College Writing. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Murray, Rowena and Sarah Moore. The Handbook of Academic Writing: A Fresh Approach. New York: Open University Press, 2006; Oppenheimer, Daniel M. "Consequences of Erudite Vernacular Utilized Irrespective of Necessity: Problems with Using Long Words Needlessly." Applied Cognitive Psychology 20 (2006): 139-156; Pernawan, Plumbing Emergency. Common Flaws in Students' Rsearch Proposals. English Education Department. Yogyakarta State University; Style. College Writing. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Invention: Five Qualities of Good Writing. The Reading/Writing Center. Hunter College; Sword, Helen. Stylish Academic Writing. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012; What Is an Academic Constitution Template Organization Student Institute for Writing Rhetoric. Dartmouth College. Best Custom Essay Writing Service https://essayservice.com?tap_s=5051-a24331

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